Research

My research interests have broadened over the years and now span topics that range from international and cross-cultural management to the international research process and the wider impact of academic research.

To keep things manageable, I tend to subdivide my research work into the following programmes. The boundaries between them are not rigid; much of the work I do extends over several areas.

International HRM & Staffing Policies Focuses on the human dimension of international business. Areas of interests are expatriates as control mechanisms in MNCs, expatriate failure, expatriate identity, staffing policies, and the role of expatriates in knowledge transfer in MNCs.
HQ-Subsidiary Relationships in MNCs Investigates strategy, structure, and control mechanisms in MNCs. Specific areas of interest include country-of-origin effects, entry modes, subsidiary roles, R&D internationalization, and MNC and subsidiary typologies.
The International Research Process Reviews research process issues, critically evaluating received wisdom. Projects have focused on academic referencing, experimental research in IB, international mail surveys, translation issues, stability of cultural dimensions, and the role of cultural distance.
Transfer of HRM Practices in MNCs Researches one of the central questions in the literature on MNCs: the extent to which their subsidiaries act and behave as local firms (local isomorphism) versus the extent to which their practices resemble those of the parent company or some other global standard (internal consistency).
Language in International Business Explores the importance of language barriers in international business and its implications for the management of MNCs. Aims to integrate the fields of international management, socio-linguistics and cross-cultural training and communication.
Quality and Impact of Academic Research Critical assessment of the quality and impact of academic research, journals, and the role of editors/editorial boards in the publishing process. Includes large-scale assessments of citation-based impact metrics, the use of Google Scholar, and bibliometrics for the Social Sciences.

The volume "Grands Auteurs en Management International" devotes an entire chapter to my contributions to the field of International Business. I am the youngest academic featured in the volume, which also includes prominent IB researchers such as John Dunning, Peter Buckley, Christopher Bartlett, CK Prahalad, Sumantra Ghoshal, Geert Hofstede, and Edward Hall.

1-minute video of my work on ethnic identity

Selected recent publications

Below are my publications since 2014. For a full list (more than 160 books, book chapters and academic papers), see Full list of publications

  1. Kim, H.; Reiche, B.S.; Harzing, A.W. (2022) How does successive inpatriation contribute to subsidiary capability building and subsidiary evolution? An organizational knowledge creation perspective, Journal of International Business Studies, in press. Available online... - Publisher's version (free access) - Related blog post
  2. Dodourova, M.; Zhao, S.; Harzing, A.-W. (2022) Ambidexterity in MNC knowledge sourcing in emerging economies: a microfoundational perspective, International Business Review, in press. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  3. Lee, H.-J., Yoshikawa, K. Harzing, A.W. (2022) Culture and Institutions: Dispositional and contextual explanations for country-of-origin effects in MNC “ethnocentric” staffing practices, Organization Studies, in press, Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  4. Fan, S.X.; Harzing, A.W. (2021) The double-edged sword of ethnic similarity for expatriates, Organizational Dynamics, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1-10. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  5. Li, C, Zhang, LE, & Harzing, AW (2021). Expatriate Cultural Identity Negotiation Strategies: A Dynamic Framework. Intercultural Management in Practice, in: Chavan, M. and Taksa, L. (eds). Intercultural Management in Practice, Bingley: Emerald, pp. 131-140. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  6. Fan, SX, & Harzing, AW (2021). By Mutual Agreement: How Can Ethnically Similar Expatriates Engage Host Country Employees, in: Chavan, M. and Taksa, L. (eds). Intercultural Management in Practice, Bingley: Emerald, pp. 83-95. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  7. Bastida, M.; Pinto, L.H.; Harzing, A. W. (2021) No room at the top? A system dynamics view of the recursive consequences of women’s underrepresentation in international assignments, Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 361-381. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  8. Zhao, S., Gooderham, P. N., Harzing, A.W., & Papanastassiou, M. (2021) Do Multinational Enterprises Contribute to, or Reduce Global Inequality? Critical Perspectives on International Business, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-7. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  9. Harzing, A.W.; Reiche B.S.; Pudelko, M. (2021) Intercultural Survey Research: Challenges and Suggested Solutions, in: Guttormsen, D.S.A., Lauring, J., & Chapman, M.K., 2020. Field Guide to Intercultural Research. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  10. Fan, S.X.; Harzing, A.W.; Kӧhler, T. (2020) How you see me, how you don't: Ethnic Identity Self-verification in Interactions between Local Subsidiary Employees and Ethnically Similar Expatriates, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol 31, no. 19, pp. 2407-2433. Available online... - Publisher's version  - Related blog post - 1-minute video
  11. Fan, S.X.; Harzing, A.W. (2020): Moving beyond the baseline: Exploring the potential of experiments in language research, in: Horn, S. , Lecomte, P.  and Tietze, S. (eds) 2020 Understanding Multilingual Workplaces: Methodological, Empirical and Pedagogic Perspectives, Routledge. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post - 1-minute video
  12. Zander, L.; Mockaitis, A.I.; Harzing, A.W. et al. (2020) Action Intent: Getting closer to leadership behavior in 22 countries, in Zander, L. (Ed.) Research Handbook of Global Leadership: Making a difference, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 54-75. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blogpost
  13. Harzing, A.W. (2020): Everything you always wanted to know about impact..., in: Clark, T.; Wright, M.; Ketchen, D. How to get published in the best management journals, 2nd edition. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 127-141. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  14. Zhao, S.; Tan, H.; Papanastasiou, M.; Harzing, A.W. (2020) The internationalization of innovation towards the South:  A historical case study of a global pharmaceutical corporation in China (1993-2017), Asia-Pacific Journal of Management, vol 37, no. 2, pp. 553-585. Available online... - Publisher's version (read for free) - Related blog post
  15. Li, C.; Zhang, L.E.; Harzing, A.W. (2019) Of Ostriches, Frogs, Birds and Lizards: A Dynamic Framework of Cultural Identity Negotiation Strategies in an Era of Global Mobility, Journal of Global Mobility, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 239-254. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  16. Harzing, A.W. (2019) Two new kids on the block: How do Crossref and Dimensions compare with Google Scholar, Microsoft Academic, Scopus and the Web of Science?Scientometrics, vol. 120, no. 1, pp. 341-349. Available online... - Publisher's version (read for free) - Related blog post
  17. Duvivier, F.; Peeters, C.; Harzing, A.W. (2019) Not all international assignments are created equal: HQ-subsidiary knowledge transfer patterns across types of assignments and types of knowledge, Journal of World Business, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 181-190. Available online... - Publisher's version (free access) - Related blog post
  18. Fan, S.X.; Cregan, C.; Harzing, A.W.; Kӧhler, T. (2018) The benefits of being understood: The role of ethnic identity confirmation in expatriate-local employee interactions, Human Resource Management, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 327-339. Available online... - Publisher's version (read for free) - Related blog post - 1-minute video
  19. Harzing, A.W.; Vinkenburg, C.; van Engen, M. (2018): How to make career advancement in Economics more inclusive, Economisch Statistische Berichten, vol. 103, issue 4767s, 1 November, pp. 42-48. Publisher's version (free access) - Related blog post.
  20. Zhang, L.E.; Harzing, A.W.; Fan, S.X. (2018) Managing Expatriates in China: A Language and Identity Perspective, London: Palgrave. More about this book... - Related blog post
  21. Tenzer, H.; Terjesen, S.; Harzing, A.W. (2017) Language in International Business: A review and agenda for future research, Management International Review, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 815-854. Available online... - Publisher's version (free access) - Related blog post - Presentation slides
  22. Harzing, A.W.; Alakangas, S. (2017) Microsoft Academic is one year old: the Phoenix is ready to leave the nest, Scientometrics, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 1887-1894. Available online... - Publisher's version (read for free) - Related blog post
  23. Fan, S.X.; Harzing, A.W. (2017) Host country employees' ethnic identity confirmation: Evidence from interactions with ethnically similar expatriates, Journal of World Business, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 640-652. Available online... - Publisher's version (free access) - Related blog post
  24. Martin-Martin, A.; Orduna-Malea, E; Harzing, A.W.; Delgado López-Cózar, E. (2017) Can we use Google Scholar to identify highly-cited documents?, Journal of Informetrics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 152-163. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  25. Harzing, A.W.; Alakangas, S. (2017) Microsoft Academic: Is the Phoenix getting wings?, Scientometrics, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 371-383. Available online... - Publisher's version (read for free) - Related blog post - Press coverage in Scientific American and Nature
  26. Harzing, A.W. (2016) What, who or where? Rejoinder to identifying research topic development in Business and Management education research using legitimation code theory, Journal of Management Education, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 726-731. Available online... Publisher's version - Related blog post
  27. Metz, I.; Harzing, A.W.; Zyphur, M. (2016) Of journal editors and editorial boards: Who are the trailblazers in increasing editorial board gender equality?, British Journal of Management, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 712-726. [Also incorporated into a virtual issue on Gender in Management ResearchAvailable online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  28. Zhang, L.E.; Harzing, A.W. (2016) From Dilemmatic Struggle to Legitimized Indifference: Expatriates’ host country language learning and its impact on the expatriate-HCE relationship, Journal of World Business, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 774-786. Available online... - Publisher's version (free access) - Related blog post
  29. Harzing, A.W. (2016) Why replication studies are essential: learning from failure and success, Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 563-568. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  30. Harzing, A.W. (2016) Microsoft Academic (Search): a Phoenix arisen from the ashes?, Scientometrics, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 1637-1647. Available online... - Publisher's version (read for free) - Related blog post
  31. Harzing, A.W.; Pudelko, M.; Reiche B.S. (2016) The bridging role of expatriates and inpatriates in knowledge transfer in multinational corporations, Human Resource Management, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 679–695. Available online... - Publisher's version (free access) - Related blog postESI top 1% most Highly Cited Paper - One of three finalists for the 2016 International HRM Scholarly Research Award from the HR Division, the Academy of Management
  32. Harzing, A.W.; Adler N.J. (2016) Disseminating knowledge: From potential to reality – New open-access journals collide with convention, Academy of Management Learning & Education, vol 15, no. 1, pp. 140-156. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post
  33. Harzing, A.W.; Pudelko, M. (2016) Do we need to distance ourselves from the distance concept? Why home and host country context might matter more than (cultural) distance, Management International Review, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 1-34. Available online... - Publisher's version (free access) - Related blog post - ESI top 1% most Highly Cited Paper
  34. Harzing, A.W.; Alakangas, S. (2016) Google Scholar, Scopus and the Web of Science: A longitudinal and cross-disciplinary comparison, Scientometrics, vol. 106, no. 2, pp. 787-804. Available online... - Publisher's version (read for free) - Related blog post - Presentation slides - Video presentation of this article - Blog post - ESI top 1% most Highly Cited Paper - ESI hot paper
  35. Harzing, A.W. (2015) Health warning: Might contain multiple personalities. The problem of homonyms in Thomson Reuters Essential Science Indicators, Scientometrics, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 2259-2270. Available online... - Publisher's version (read for free) - Related blog post - [Press coverage in The Times and the Times Higher Education].
  36. Reiche B.S.; Harzing, A.W.; Pudelko, M. (2015) Why and how does shared language affect subsidiary knowledge inflows? A social identity perspective, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 46, no.5, pp. 528-551. Available online... - Publisher's version (free access) - Related blog post - [Also incorporated in a JIBS collection on Language and selected as one of 9 articles reprinted in Language in International Business. Developing a Field.]
  37. Harzing, A.W.; Mijnhardt, W. (2015) Proof over promise: Towards a more inclusive ranking of Dutch academics in Economics & Business, Scientometrics, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 727-749. Available online... - Publisher's version (read for free) - Related blog post
  38. Harzing, A.W.; Alakangas, S.; Adams, D. (2014) hIa: An individual annual h-index to accommodate disciplinary and career length differences, Scientometrics, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 811-821. Available online... - Publisher's version (read for free) - Related blog post
  39. Tenzer, H.; Pudelko, M.; Harzing, A.W. (2014) The impact of language barriers on trust formation in multinational teams, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 45, no. 5, pp. 508-535. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post - [Also incorporated in a JIBS collection on Language] - ESI top 1% most Highly Cited Paper
  40. Harzing, A.W.; Pudelko, M. (2014) Hablas vielleicht un peu la mia language? A Comprehensive overview of the role of language differences in headquarters-subsidiary communication, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 696–717. Available online... - Publisher's version (free access) - Related blog post
  41. Harzing, A.W. (2014) A longitudinal study of Google Scholar coverage between 2012 and 2013, Scientometrics, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 565-575. Available online... - Publisher's version (read for free) - Related blog post - ESI top 1% most Highly Cited Paper
  42. Harzing, A.W.; Giroud, A.L.A. (2014) The competitive advantage of nations: An application to academia, Journal of Informetrics, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 29-42. Available online... - Publisher's version - Related blog post