International HRM & Staffing Policies

 

My first research was in the area of comparative industrial relations and international HRM. Early publications in this area were mainly textbook chapters and study guides.

Textbook on International HRM

International Human Resource Management

My edited research based textbook on IHRM (1995) sold more than 10,000 copies. Although this book was marketed as a textbook, it received wide recognition among researchers in the field.

A second edition of this book was published in November 2003. Unlike many other textbooks, all 23 contributors were experts and active researchers in their topic area. A third edition of the book was published in November 2010, again with expert contributors from many countries. A fourth edition was published in 2014, keeping its international outlook and focus on research-based contributions.

Expatriate staffing, expatriate control, and expatriate failure

My work was the first to test empirically that expatriates play a major role in controlling subsidiaries, both through direct supervision and through socialisation and the creation of informal communication networks. It also was the first to provide detailed information about staffing policies in a large sample of MNCs. Up till then academics had mostly relied on a single, much smaller scale, study conducted in the 1970s.

My work on the myth of high expatriate failure rates generated considerable interest and the related 2002 article on academic referencing is now included in many PhD courses. A final article in this series suggest to abandon the concept of expatriate failure altogether.

Expatriates, inpatriates and knowledge sharing

In this area, my work with Barry Hocking (MRes) showed that learning by expatriates is an underestimated strategic assignment outcome and that varying combinations of global and local knowledge access and communication are crucial in achieving the MNC's goals of global efficiency, national responsiveness and worldwide learning.

Work with PhD student Sebastian Reiche (now at IESE, University of Navarra, Spain), looked at the role of social capital in knowledge sharing through expatriate assignments. A revised version of his conceptual model and an empirical paper were both published in Journal of International Business Studies. The latter paper was winner of the 2011 International HR Scholarly Research Award from the HR Division, Academy of Management.

Finally, a major international mail survey on the role of language in HQ subsidiary relationships (see programme 5 for details) in a wide range of host countries (Australia/NZ, China, Japan, Korea, France, Germany, Spain, UK, Denmark, Finland, Norway & Sweden) resulted in a paper for Human Resource Management on the bridging role of expatriates and inpatriates in multinational corporations, looking at the relationship between changing patterns of international staffing and knowledge transfer.

Expatriates and locals: ethnic identity confirmation

Work with PhD student Shea Fan (now at Ningbo Nottingham Campus, China) investigates the important phenomenon of ex-host country nationals. These are expatriates that share an ethnicity with host country employees, for instance Chinese-American expatriates sent to China.

We investigate the role of identity confirmation in the relationship between these expatriates and host country employees and its impact on trust, expatriate adjustment and knowledge transfer. A dyadic survey paper on this topic was published in Human Resource Management and an experimental paper with host country employees in Journal of World Business. This work is also incorporated in a book on Managing Expatriates in China.

Selected publications

Online papers - Full list of publications

  1. Zhang, L.E.; Harzing, A.W.; Fan, S.X. (2017) Managing Expatriates in China: A Language and Identity Perspective, London: Palgrave. More about this book...
  2. Fan, S.X.; Cregan, C.; Harzing, A.W.; Kӧhler, T. (2017) The benefits of being understood: The role of ethnic identity confirmation in expatriate-local employee interactions, in press for Human Resource Management. Available online...
  3. Fan, S.X.; Harzing, A.W. (2017) Host country employees' ethnic identity confirmation: Evidence from interactions with ethnically similar expatriates, Journal of World Business. Available online... - Publisher's version
  4. Fan, S.X.; Harzing, A.W.; Köhler, T. (2017) Ethnic identity verification in interactions between local subsidiary employees and ethnically similar expatriates, paper presented at the 16th European Academy of Management annual meeting, June 21-24, Glasgow, UK. [2nd runner-up of the Journal of Global Mobility (JGM) Best Paper Award, EURAM 2017 Conference]
  5. Zhang, L.E.; Harzing, A.W. (2016) From Dilemmatic Struggle to Legitimized Indifference: Expatriates’ host country language learning and its impact on the expatriate-HCE relationship, Journal of World Business, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 774-786. Available online... - Publisher's version (free access!)
  6. Yoshikawa, K.; Lee, H-J.; Harzing, A.W. (2016) The determinants of MNE ethnocentric staffing: Are they emotional or rational?, paper presented at the 73rd Academy of Management annual meeting, August 5-9, Anaheim, California, USA.
  7. Fan, S.X.; Cregan, C.; Harzing, A.W.; Kӧhler, T. (2016) The role of ethnic identity confirmation in expatriate-local employee interactions, paper presented at the 73rd Academy of Management annual meeting, August 5-9, Anaheim, California, USA.
  8. Harzing, A.W.; Pudelko, M.; Reiche B.S. (2016) The bridging role of expatriates and inpatriates in knowledge transfer in multinational corporationsHuman Resource Management, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 679–695. Available online... - Publisher's version (free access!) - ESI top 1% most Highly Cited Paper
  9. Yoshikawa, K.; Lee, H-J.; Harzing, A.W. (2016) Won’t localize or can’t localize?: Emotional and rational explanations for MNE ethnocentric staffing practices, paper presented at the 2016 annual meeting of the Academy of International Business, June 27-30 2016, New Orleans, USA.
  10. Fan, S.X.; Cregan, C.; Harzing, A.W.; Kӧhler, T. (2016) The benefits of being understood: The role of ethnic identity confirmation in expatriate-local employee interactions, paper presented at the 15th European Academy of Management annual meeting, June 1-4, Paris, France.
  11. Fan, S.; Koeher, T.; Harzing, A.W.; Cregan, C. (2015) Insider knowledge or insider liability? The role of ethnic identity of overseas Chinese returnees, paper presented at the 72nd Academy of Management annual meeting, August 7-11, in Vancouver, Canada.
  12. Reiche, B.S.; Harzing, A.W. (2014) International Assignments, in: Harzing, A.W.; Pinnington A. (2014) International Human Resource Management, 4th edition, London: Sage Publications.
  13. Harzing, A.W.; Pinnington A. (2014) International Human Resource Management, 4th edition, London: Sage Publications.
  14. Fan, S.; Koeher, T.; Harzing, A.W.; Cregan, C. (2014) Does it matter who I am? The role of ethnic identity confirmation in expatriates’ knowledge acquisition, paper presented at the 2014 annual meeting of the Academy of International Business, June 24-June 26, Vancouver, Canada.
  15. Fan, S.; Koeher, T.; Harzing, A.W.; Cregan, C. (2014) The role of ethnic identity confirmation on knowledge transfer between expatriates and host country employees in MNCs, paper presented at the first HR Division International Conference (HRIC), 15-16 June, 2014, Beijing, China.
  16. Harzing, A.W.; Pudelko, M.; Reiche, B.S. (2013) Developments in knowledge transfer activities of expatriates and inpatriates, paper presented at the 2012 annual meeting of the Academy of International Business, July 3-July 6, Istanbul, Turkey.
  17. Harzing, A.W.; Pudelko, M.; Reiche, B.S. (2013) How international assignees affect knowledge transfers in MNCs: A multinational comparison, paper presented at the 26th annual meeting of the Association of Japanese Business Studies (AJBS), July 2-3, Istanbul, Turkey.
  18. Fan, S.; Köhler,T.; Harzing, A.W. (2012) Applying identity theories in expatriate management studies, conference proceedings of the 2012 Annual Conference of the Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management (ANZAM), Perth, Australia.
  19. Harzing, A.W., Pudelko, M., Reiche, B.S. (2012) Changing patterns of international assignee staffing and their role in knowledge transfer, paper presented at the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management (EIASM) 10th Workshop on International Strategy & Cross-Cultural Management, October 19-20, Reykjavik, Iceland.
  20. Fan, S.; Kӧhler, T.; Harzing, A.W. (2012). Ethnic identity confirmation in knowledge transfer between expatriates and host country employees, paper presented at the 69th Academy of Management annual meeting, August 3-7 in Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
  21. Fan, S.; Kӧhler, T.; Harzing, A.W. (2011) Do I have to be one of you? The role of ethnic identity in relationships between expatriates and host country employees, conference proceedings of the Australian New Zealand Academy of Management, Wellington, 7-9 December 2011.
  22. Fan, S.; Kӧhler, T.; Harzing, A.W. (2011) Do you really know me? Identity confirmation in expatriate assignments, paper presented at the 2011 annual meeting of the Academy of International Business, June 24-28 2011, Nagoya, Japan.
  23. Reiche B.S.; Kraimer, M.L.; Harzing, A.W. (2011) Why do international assignees stay? An organizational embeddedness perspective, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 521-544. Available online...
  24. Reiche, B.S.; Harzing, A.W. (2011) International Assignments, in: Harzing, A.W.; Pinnington A. (2011) International Human Resource Management, 3rd edition, London: Sage Publications. Available online...
  25. Harzing, A.W.; Pinnington A. (2011) International Human Resource Management, 3rd edition, London: Sage Publications.
  26. Reiche, B.S.; Kraimer, M.L.; Harzing, A.W. (2009) Why do international assignees stay? A job embeddedness perspective, paper presented at the 35th EIBA annual conference, Valencia, 13-14 December 2009.
  27. Reiche B.S.; Kraimer, M.L.; Harzing, A.W. (2009) A social capital perspective of international assignee retention, paper presented at the 68th Academy of Management annual meeting, August 7-11, 2009 - Chicago, Illinois.
  28. Reiche, B.S.; Harzing, A.W.; Kraimer, M.L. (2009) The role of international assignees' social capital in creating inter-unit intellectual capital: A cross-level model, Journal of International Business Studies, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 509-526. Available online...
  29. Reiche, B.S.; Kraimer, M.L.; Harzing, A.W. (2009) Inpatriates as agents of cross-unit knowledge flows in multinational corporations, in: Sparrow, P.R. (ed.) Handbook of International HR Research: Integrating People, Process and Context. Oxford: Blackwell. Available online...
  30. Reiche, B.S.; Harzing, A.W.; Kraimer, M.L. (2008) A social capital perspective of knowledge sharing and career outcomes of international assignees, paper presented at the 2008 Academy of Management annual meeting, August 8-13, 2008 - Anaheim, California.
  31. Hocking, J.B.; Brown, M.; Harzing, A.W. (2007) Balancing global and local strategic contexts: Expatriate knowledge transfer, applications and learning within a transnational organization, Human Resource Management, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 513-533. Available online...
  32. Reiche, B.S.; Harzing, A.W. (2006) Inpatriates as conduits of knowledge flows: The roles of social capital, intellectual capital, and career opportunities, paper presented at the 66th annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Atlanta, August 11-16.
  33. Reiche, B.S.; Harzing, A.W. (2005) Managing turnover of local staff at multinational companies: The role of international staffing, conference proceedings of the ANZIBA annual meeting, November 10-11, Melbourne, Australia.
  34. Reiche, B.S.; Harzing, A.W. (2005) The role of inpatriate assignments in multinational corporations: An exploratory case study, conference proceedings of the 8th conference on International Human Resource Management, June 14-16, 2005, Cairns, Australia.
  35. Reiche, B.S.; Harzing, A.W. (2005) Knowledge flows in multinational corporations: The role of inpatriate assignees' social capital, paper presented at the 65th annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Honolulu, August 5-10.
  36. Reiche, B.S.; Harzing, A.W. (2005) The role of inpatriate assignments in multinational corporations: An exploratory case study, paper presented at the 65th annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Honolulu, August 5-10.
  37. Harzing, A.W. (2004) Ideal jobs and international student mobility in the enlarged European Union, European Management Journal, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 693-703. Available online...
  38. Christensen, C.; Harzing, A.W. (2004) Expatriate failure: Time to abandon the concept?, Career Development International, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 616-626. Available online...
  39. Harzing, A.W.; Mockaitis, A. (2004) Working in the enlarged European Union: Ideal jobs and international mobility among university students in sixteen European countries, conference proceedings of the 30th EIBA conference, December 5-8, 2004, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
  40. Hocking, J.B.; Brown, M.; Harzing, A.W. (2004) Tacitness and time: Contributors to the strategic outcomes of transnational knowledge transfer, paper presented at the 64th annual meeting of the Academy of Management, New Orleans, August 6-11.
  41. Hocking, J.B.; Brown, M.; Harzing, A.W. (2004) A knowledge transfer perspective of strategic assignment purposes and their path-dependent outcomes, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 565-586. Available online...
  42. Harzing, A.W. (2004) Internationalization and the international division of labour, in: Harzing, A.W.; Van Ruysseveldt, J. (eds.), International Human Resource Management, 2nd edition, London: Sage Publications, 2004, pp. 9-32.
  43. Harzing, A.W. (2004) Strategy and structure of multinational companies, in: Harzing, A.W.; Van Ruysseveldt, J. (eds.), International Human Resource Management, 2nd edition, London: Sage Publications, 2004, pp. 33-64.
  44. Harzing, A.W. (2004) Composing an international staff, in: Harzing, A.W.; Van Ruysseveldt, J. (eds.), International Human Resource Management, 2nd edition, London: Sage Publications, 2004, pp. 251-282.
  45. Harzing, A.W.; Van Ruysseveldt, J. (eds.) (2004) International Human Resource Management, 2nd edition. London: Sage Publications, 2004. More about this book...
  46. Hocking, J.B.; Brown, M.; Harzing, A.W. (2003) The strategic outcomes of expatriate assignments: Are they deliberate or emergent?, paper presented at the 7th Conference on International Human Resource Management, June 4-6, 2003, Limerick, Ireland.
  47. Harzing, A.W. (2002) Are our referencing errors undermining our scholarship and credibility? The case of expatriate failure rates, Journal of Organizational Behavior, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 127-148. Available online...
  48. Harzing, A.W. (2001) Of bears, bumble-bees and spiders: The role of expatriates in controlling foreign subsidiaries, Journal of World Business, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 366-379. Available online...
  49. Harzing, A.W. (2001) An analysis of the functions of international transfer of managers in MNCs, Employee Relations, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 581-598. Available online...
  50. Harzing, A.W. (2001) Who's in charge: an empirical study of executive staffing practices in foreign subsidiaries, Human Resource Management, Summer 2001, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 139-158. Available online... [reprinted in International Human Resource Management, Editors: Pawan Budhwar, Randall S. Schuler, Paul R. Sparrow, Sage Publications 2009]
  51. Harzing, A.W. (2001) Why do we send them out? An analysis of the functions of international transfers, paper presented at the 61st annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Washington, 3-8 August.
  52. Harzing, A.W. (2000) De rol van expatriates bij het beheersen van buitenlandse dochterondernemingen, Bedrijfskunde, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 93-102.
  53. Harzing, A.W. (1999) - MNC Staffing policies for the CEO-position in foreign subsidiaries. The results of an innovative research method, in: Brewster, C.; Harris, H. (eds.) International HRM: Contemporary Issues in Europe, Routledge, pp. 67-88.
  54. Harzing, A.W. (1999) Who's in charge: an empirical study of executive staffing practices in foreign subsidiaries, conference proceedings of the 25th EIBA conference, Manchester, 12-14 December.
  55. Harzing, A.W. (1997) Research Note: About the paucity of empirical research in IHRM: A test of Downes framework of staffing foreign subsidiaries, Journal of International Management, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 153-167. Available online...
  56. Borg, M.; Harzing, A.W. (1996) Karrierepfade und Effektivität internationaler Führungskräfte - Profile und Erfolgspotentiale, in: Macharzina, K.; Wolf, J. (Hrsg.), Handbuch Internationales Führungskräfte-Management, Stuttgart: RAABE Verlag, pp. 267-278.
  57. Harzing, A.W. (1995) The persistent myth of high expatriate failure rates, International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 6, May, pp. 457-475. Available online...
  58. Harzing, A.W. (1995) International Human Resource Management, Harzing, A.W.; Van Ruysseveldt, J. (eds), London: Sage Publications, 384 pp., ISBN 0-8039-7950-9 and ISBN 0-8039-7951-7 (pbk). More about this book...
  59. Harzing, A.W. (1995) Internationalization and the international division of labour, in: Harzing, A.W.; Van Ruysseveldt, J. (eds.), International Human Resource Management, London: Sage Publications, pp. 1-24.
  60. Harzing, A.W. (1995) Strategic planning in multinational firms, in: Harzing, A.W.; Van Ruysseveldt, J. (eds.), International Human Resource Management, London: Sage Publications, pp. 25-50.
  61. Borg, M.; Harzing, A.W. (1995) International Staffing, in: Harzing, A.W.; Van Ruysseveldt, J. (eds.), International Human Resource Management, London: Sage Publications, pp. 179-204.
  62. Harzing, A.W. (1995) MNC staffing policies, in search of explanations for variety, paper presented at the 21st annual meeting of the European International Business Academy, Urbino, December.
  63. Harzing, A.W. (1994) Organizational bumble-bees: international transfers as a control mechanism in multinational companies, paper presented at the doctoral tutorial of the 20th annual meeting of the European International Business Association, Warsaw, 11-14 December.