Google Scholar

The Google Scholar query pane allows you to perform a Google Scholar query and analyse its results. Publish or Perish also calculates a number of commonly used citation metrics from the results. The results are available on-screen and can also be copied to the Windows clipboard (for pasting into other applications) or saved to a text file (for future reference or further analysis).

How to perform a Google Scholar search

To perform a Google Scholar search:

  1. Enter the relevant parameters in the various fields (see below for an explanation of each parameter);
  2. Click Lookup or press the Enter key.

The program will now contact Google Scholar to obtain the results list and calculate the citation metrics. The metrics and list of results can be exported in a variety of formats.

Important note

The Google Scholar query pane gives access to all Google Scholar search parameters, accessible through a pop-up on the Google Scholar home page. This is not the same as a standard Google Scholar search (i.e., from the standard Google Scholar search box).

A standard Google Scholar search is equivalent to performing an All of the words query, which matches the search terms anywhere in the searched documents (author, title, source, abstract, references etc.) and usually provides too many irrelevant results for an effective citation analysis. Hence it is normally recommended to use a more specific query; see for example Author search and Journal search.

However, if you do want to get the same results in Publish or Perish as with a standard Google Scholar search, do the following.

  1. Empty all text fields except All of the words.
  2. Enter your query terms in the All of the words field.
  3. Set the Years fields both to 0.
  4. Clear the Title words only field.
  5. Click on Lookup.
  6. When the results appear, click on the Rank column header to sort the results in the order in which Google Scholar returned them.

Attributes

This pane contains the following fields.

Option Description
Authors

Enter the names of the authors you want to look up. The recommended format is to use one or more initials and to quote each name, for example "A Harzing". Try to use the initials that the author usually publishes under.

You can enter multiple names separated by AND or OR, for example "A Harzing" AND "N G Noorderhaven" (co-authored) or "A Harzing" OR "N G Noorderhaven" (individual papers AND co-authored ones).

To exclude an author name from the results, prefix the name with a '-' (minus) character. For example, "A Harzing" -"N G Noorderhaven" finds articles authored by A Harzing but not N G Noorderhaven.

For more search tips, see Author search.

Years

Enter the range of years in which the papers must have been published. You can set either year to 0 (zero) to indicate "don't care".

Publication/
Journal

Enter the name of the publication or journal you want to look up. The recommended format is the full title enclosed in quotes, for example "Journal of International Business". However, you might have to experiment with common abbreviations as well.

For more search tips, see Journal search.

ISSN

Enter the ISSNs of the journals you want to look up. The ISSNs must use the format dddd-dddd, i.e., 4 digits, a hyphen, and another 4 digits.

Note: The ISSN search helps to narrow down the results, but may cause false positives if the same ISSN appears in the text of an article. Generally, the best results are achieved when searching for both a publication title and the corresponding ISSN.

All of the words Enter any additional words that must all appear in the returned papers. This can be used to narrow down the search for a specific set of papers. For tips on search syntax, see General/keyword search.
Title words only

Check this box to restrict the additional word matches (i.e., All of the words, Any of the words, None of the words, The phrase) to the titles of the returned papers; clear the box to match them anywhere in the papers. For tips on search syntax, see General/keyword search.

Any of the words

Enter any additional words that must appear alone or in combination in the returned papers. This can be used to narrow down the search for a specific set of papers. For tips on search syntax, see General/keyword search.

None of the words

Enter any additional words that must not appear in the returned papers. This can be used to narrow down the search for a specific set of papers. For tips on search syntax, see General/keyword search.

The phrase

Enter a phrase (i.e., a specific sequence of words) that must all appear in the returned papers. This can be used to narrow down the search for a specific set of papers. For tips on search syntax, see General/keyword search.

Lookup

Multi-function button with the following functions.

Note: The [Default] function is obtained by clicking on the main part if the button; the alternate functions appear on a drop-down menu when you click on the drop-down arrow on the button.

  • Lookup - [Default] Perform the query. If possible, the query is satisfied from the local Publish or Perish cache; this saves time and reduces the load on Google Scholar. If no cache entry for the query exists or the entry is older than the maximum cache age, then the query is forwarded to Google Scholar. After the results are received from Google Scholar, the local cache is automatically refreshed.
  • Lookup Direct - Submit the query directly to Google Scholar, bypassing the local Publish or Perish cache. This may be useful if you suspect that Google Scholar may have newer information than is available through the local cache. When the results are returned from Google Scholar, the local cache is automatically refreshed.
  • Mark for Lookup - Do not perform the query yet, but mark it (with error code 35) for later lookup, for example as part of a batch lookup from the queries list.

Tip: You can change the maximum cache age in the Preferences: Google Scholar dialog box, which is accessible through the Tools > Preferences command.

Note: It is not useful to perform multiple direct lookups for the same query shortly after another; this merely increases the load on Google Scholar and increases the chance that your computer may be temporarily denied access by Google Scholar. We recommend that you only use the Lookup Direct function as a last resort.

Clear All Clears all query fields. You can use this to quickly prepare the fields for an entirely new query.
Revert Restores the query fields to their previous state. This function is only available as long as you have not performed a lookup with the current query fields.
Copy

Multi-function button that copies the results or metrics belonging to the current query to the Windows clipboard in one of the following ways. See Exporting your data for information about these formats.

Note 1: The [Default] function is obtained by clicking on the main part if the button; the alternate functions appear on a drop-down menu when you click on the drop-down arrow on the button.

Note 2: The labelling and order of the Copy commands has changed somewhat between PoP 5.x and PoP 6.x, but their effects have remained the same. The following table shows the menu commands in PoP 5.x and PoP 6.x order.

PoP 5.x PoP 6.x
n/a Full Query Report [Default]
As CSV Metrics as CSV
As CSV with Header Metrics as CSV with Header
For Excel Metrics for Excel
For Excel with Header [Default] Metrics for Excel with Header
As BibTeX Results as CSV
As EndNote Results as CSV with Header
As ISI/WoS Export Results for Excel
As JSON Results for Excel with Header
As RIS/RefManager Results as BibTeX
As APA Reference Results as EndNote
As Chicago Reference Results as ISI/WoS Export
As CSIRO Reference Results as JSON
As Harvard Reference Results as RIS/RefManager
As MLA Reference Results as APA Reference
Metrics as CSV Results as Chicago Reference
Metrics as CSV with Header Results as CSIRO Reference
Metrics for Excel Results as Harvard Reference
Metrics for Excel with Header Results as Vancouver Reference
New

Multi-function button that creates a new query object, as follows.

Note: If you click on the main part of the button, a new query of the same type as the current one (i.e., Google Scholar) will be created; the alternate functions appear on a drop-down menu when you click on the drop-down arrow on the button.